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What is IP Address ? DNS And Subnetting?

Words of History

“ Before you learn something about technology . Get used to know the background , history , and who have found ? which has to create, build , develop a technology itself . Maybe they are just one person , it may be a group , or maybe a larger organization , or it could include a country larger ” .

History

The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4(IPv4), is still in use today. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995. IPv6 was standardized as RFC 2460 in 1998, and itsdeployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.

IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 (IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (IPv6).

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities.


Source from wikipedia.
ip address

What is IP Address ? DNS And Subnetting?

IP address ( Internet Protocol Address or often abbreviated IP ) is a row of binary numbers between 32 bits to 128 bits are used as address identification for each host computer in the network Internet . The length of this figure is 32 bit (for IPv4 or IP version 4), and 128 bits ( for IPv6 or IP version 6 ) which indicates the darikomputer address on the Internet network based on TCP / IP .

IP Address is an address on the computer so that the computer can be connected to another computer , IP address consists of 4 blocks , each block filled by a 0 - 255. Examples of such IP address 192.168.100.1 , 10.57.38.223 , this is Ipv4 .

You still confused ?

Well short of its ip address is the arrangement of numbers that can connect a computer to another computer

For the example is 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.2 and many more.

Easier is not it ?

Conclusions will be placed at the end of the paragraph , summarized to be more easily understood about the ip address , dns , and subnetting .

Function IP Address

  • 1. IP Address used as an identification tool interface on the host or network

    This function is illustrated as the person's name as a method to identify who that person is . In computer networks also apply the same thing that a unique IP Address that will be used to identify a computer or device on the network.

  • 2. IP Address used as the address of a network location

    This function is illustrated as our home address that indicates the location we are . To facilitate the delivery of data packets , the IP Address contains information of its existence . There is a service that must be passed for the data to get to the destination computer .

IP addressing system is divided into two , namely :

  • • IP version 4 ( IPv4 )
  • • IP version 6 ( IPv6 )

IP Address It has two parts, the Network ID and Host ID, eg 192.168.100.1, by default it is 192 168 100 Net ID and Host ID it is 1, so that the computer can be connected, IP used its Net ID must be the same, and host ID must be different .

So you can easily understand , the Net ID is the street name and Host ID is the house number, so Jln. Diponegoro No. 3, if the names of several people the same way, then the house number they are probably the same.

What is Public and Private IP?

a) . Public IP

Public IP is the IP address that has been set by the InterNIC and contains several pieces of network ID that is guaranteed unique used for Internet scale , a host that uses public IP addresses can be accessed by all users who belong to the internet either directly or indirectly ( through proxy / NAT ) , IP addresses are also grouped by the state Public IP is the access provider's modem / ISP is a public IP address is 125.126.0.1

b ) . Private IP

Private IP is the IP address to use to scope intranet , hosts using Private IP can only be accessed at the linkup intranet only. Example: The private IP in the LAN modem access using Private IP 192.168.1.1

Class IP Address

Class IP Address

To facilitate the use , depending on the user's needs , a variety of IP address classes are divided into five classes as shown in the figure below ;

CLASS A , class A first 8 bits are the network ID, and the next 24 bits are the host ID, class A network has particularly Id from 0 to 127 .

CLASS B , class B first 16 bits are the network ID, and the next 16 bits are the host ID, class B has a network of 128 to 191 ps

CLASS C , the C class the first 24 bits are the network ID, and the next 8 bits are the host ID, class C has a network of 192 to 223 ps

CLASS D , IP class D is used for multicasting , which use applications jointly by several computers , and IP that can be used is 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255

CLASS E , has a range of 240.0.0.0 - 254 255 255 255 , IP is used for the experiment is prepared to use IP address in the future .

“ Above there is a description of the Class IP Address “ .

dns table

Note: Class A addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 cannot be used and is reserved for loopback and diagnostic functions.

Private IP Addresses

dns ip table

“ Above there is a description of the network id id and its other hosts “ .

Definition and Function Domain System (DNS) Server

A host on the network Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol ( TCP / IP ) must have an IP address , to be accessible . IP addresses are used today ( IPv4 ) is formed in a number format , long 32 -bit integer , which is divided into four groups , ( for each group , each consisting of 8 bits ) . When a TCP / IP network has many hosts , it is not easy for humans to , given the IP address that is ( of course , for the computer this should not be a problem ) . Therefore, these IP addresses need to be mapped to the name of human you can remember easily by using DNS . For example, as the IP address 222.124.194.11 mapped into www.udemy.com it easier to remember .

In this Internet technology brain DNS is a very important role . Each time we use the internet , in our daily activities any of that, indirectly , we use the DNS (Domain Name System ) . Use of DNS in the internet including email applications (electronic mail) browsing, ssh / telnet, ftp, or other application which has to do with the internet . Therefore , knowledge and understanding of the DNS is an important thing to be possessed by operators and internet users .

dns query

Understanding Domain Name System ( DNS )

Some understanding of the domain name system is as follows :

1. DNS is a database system distributed used to search the computer name in the network using TCP / IP . DNS has the advantage of the size of the database unlimited and also have a good performance.

2. DNS is a service application on the Internet to translate domain names to IP addresses and vice versa .

3. The computers are connected and have a responsibility to provide information zone of your domain name change the domain name into an IP address and also have responsibility for the distribution of mail, mail server concerning the domain name .

4. Apps that help map the host name of a computer to an IP address on the application which is connected to the Internet such as web browsers or e - mail .

DNS can be analogous as the use of the phone book where people who want to contact by name to call and press the telephone number based on numbers from the phone book . This happens , for computer work based on the numbers and humans are more likely work by name .

For example, the domain name yahoo.com , has the IP address 202.68.0.134 , certainly remember the name of the computer more easily than given the IP address . In DNS a name server will contain information about hosts on a region / zone . Name this server , you can access other servers to retrieve the data hosted in other areas. Name servers will provide information for clients who need called resolvers .

Main functions of the DNS system

1. Translates host names ( host names ) into IP number ( IP address) or number ip into host name, therefore that name so easily remembered by internet users .

2. Provide information, on a host , all over the Internet . DNS has advantages such as :

  • Easy, control is very easy , because the user no longer be bothered to remember the IP address of a computer, simply the host name ( Computer name ) .
  • Consistently , the computer's IP address is allowed to change , but the host name does not have to be changed .

    Example : udemy.com id has IP 222.124.194.25 222.124.194.11 then turned into the client side as if there was never any incidents that have occurred IP changes .

  • Simple , user uses only one domain name to find either on the Internet or Intranet .

Concepts and DNS Hierarchy

DNS is a form of distributed databases , where management locally to the data will be forwarded , to the whole network ( Internet) by using a client- server scheme . A program called a name server , contains all the information segment , from the database and also the resolver for the clients connected or use them .

The structure of the DNS database , can be likened to the file structure on a UNIX operating system . The entire database is described as an inverted structure of a tree (tree ) , which at its peak is called the root node . At each node in the tree , have the information ( label ), for example , .org , .com , .edu , .net , Id and others , relative to peak (parent ) .This can be compared with the relative pathname of the file system UNIX , like bin, usr , var , etc and so forth . At the height of the root node in a DNS system is denoted by " . " Or " / " in the UNIX file system .

At each node is also the root of the subtree , or on the UNIX file system is the root directory of a directory . It is on the DNS system called the domain name . In each domain also allows the subtree name and could be different , it is called a subdomain or subdirectory on UNIX file system . At the subdomains , allowing their subtree else can be managed by different organizations with the main domain .

DNS Database Structure

DNS Domain Name Space structure is hierarchical clustering based on the domain name. The domain is determined based on the existing capabilities in the hierarchical structure called level consisting of:

  • 1. Root-Level Domains: the top level in the hierarchy is expressed based on the period and is denoted by ".".
  • 2. Top-Level Domains: contain second-level domains and hosts are:

    com: commercial organizations, such as IBM (ibm.com).

    edu: educational institutions, such as U.C. Berkeley (berkeley.edu).

    org: non-profit organization Electronic Frontier Foundation (eff.org).

    net: networking organization, NSFNET (nsf.net).

    gov: government organizations, non-military, NASA (nasa.gov).

    mi: the military government organizations, ARMY (army.mil).

    xx: country code (id: Indonesia, au Australia)

  • 3. Second-Level Domains: contain other domains called subdomains. For example, gobre.ac.id. Second-Level Domains can have a host gobre.ac.id www.gobre.ac.id
  • 4. Third-Level Domains: contain another domain that is a subdomain of the domain above the second level. For example, fatkom.gobre.ac.id. Subdomain fatkom.gobre.ac.id also has a host fatkom.gobre.ac.id.
  • 5. Host Name: domain name is used with the host name will create a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for each computer. For example, if there are www.gobre.ac.id, www is the hostname and domain name unsri.ac.id is.

DNS Zone

There are two forms of mapping DNS Zone, namely :

Forward Lookup Zone : Mapping of names to the IP address

Reverse Lookup Zone : Conduct a mapping of IP address to the name

Forward Lookup Zone

How to work with the DNS Forward Lookup Zone can be seen in the following example. Suppose we are browsing in the cafe, and will contact www.gobre.ac.id. Then its workflow is:

  • 1. PC we contacted the local DNS server (usually located on the ISP's network) to ask the IP Address gobre.ac.id.
  • 2. The local DNS server will look into its cache.
  • 3. If the data are in the cache server local DNS server, the server will provide the IP address to the Browser. If not, then the server to contact a DNS server on it (usually called root DNS server ".") To the IP addresses of name servers that manage the Top Level Domain Id.
  • 4. In the name server that manages the Top Level Domain Id, then the server will ask the IP of name server domain manager ac.id.
  • 5. Then the server will contact the domain name server manager ac.id, here server will ask the IP address of a second level Domain gobre.ac.id.
  • 6. After getting the IP of name server Domain gobre.ac.id second level managers, On a name server that manages gobre.ac.id, then we will ask the DNS server FQDN address of gobre.ac.id.
  • 7. After getting IP from http://www.gobre.ac.id, then the server will provide the IP address to a PC to request earlier, and create a cache of the addresses that have been searched. So if there are more requests for access http://www.gobre.ac.id, the DNS server will give an address that has been stored in the cache without contacting the server thereon. So the demand for top server only if the address to be accessed not found in the cache.
  • 8. Once the PC obtain an IP address from http://www.gobre.ac.id then normal PC can access gobre.ac.id

Reverse Domain Server

In the TCP / IP network is required also a mapping of IP addresses to hostnames. This mapping is a reverse mapping from hostname to IP address mapping called reverse domain . The goal is to save or statistical information that is stored in a log file . It is also necessary for network security ( authorization check ) . If using a host table ( / etc / hosts ) , the hostname to IP address mapping is one to one mapping . Resolver will look for hostname in the host table sequentially . By using the search process DNS IP address of a hostname can be easily done . But the process of finding the hostname of a host with a specific IP address search process requires quite a long time because they have tracked for the entire domain name server .

What is Subnetting?

Subnetting is a method to reproduce the network ID of a network ID that you have .There are 5 IP class , but that should be studied only three IP class is class A, B , and class C only. Or subnetting is a technique to break up the network into several smaller subnetworks . Subnetting can only be done on the IP addresses of class A , class B IP Address , and IP Address class C.

Some of the reasons why we need to do a subnetting

In order to streamline the allocation of IP addresses in a network in order to maximize the use of IP Address

Troubleshooting differences in hardware and physical media used daam a network , because IP Router can only integrate the various networks with different physical media if each network has a unique network address .

Increase security and reduce the congestion caused by too many hosts on a network.

Function Subnetting

  • Subnetting functions include the following :
  • Reduce network traffic , so the data passed in the company will not collide ( collision) or jammed .
  • Optimized network performance .
  • Simplified management .
  • Assisting the development of the network towards the geographical distance away ,

Subnetting Concept of Real Life

ip

Actually subnetting what and why it should be done ? This question can be answered with the analogy of a road . Jalan Gatot Subroto named consists of several houses numbered 01-08 , with house number 08 is the home of RT which has the task of announcing any information to all houses in the area Jl . Gatot Subroto.

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When a house in the area more and more , certainly raises the possibility of clutter and congestion . Because that then held the settings again , made alleys , homes that went into the alley by the number of new homes , each aisle there RTnya Chairman alone. So this will solve the congestion , efiesiensi and optimization of transportation , as well as each gang has its own previledge in managing the territory. Be drawing new regions such as below .

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Concepts such as this is actually the concept of subnetting . On the one hand want to simplify management , for example, an office wants to divide the work into three divisions with each division has 15 computer (host ) . On the other hand also for the optimization and efficiency of its network , because the traffic is not concentrated in one large network , but is divided into several segments alley . The first analogy Jl Gatot Subroto with surrounding houses can be applied to the network is as NETWORK ADDRESS ( street name ) and HOST ADDRESS ( home number ) . Meanwhile, Chairman of RT played by BROADCAST ADDRESS ( 192.168.1.255 ) , which is in charge of sending the message to all hosts on the network.

j44

Still follow the road analogy above , we apply to subnetting is as shown below . Gang is SUBNET , each subnet has HOST BROADCAST ADDRESS and ADDRESS .

j44

So what was SUBNET MASK ? Subnetmask used to read how we divide streets and alleys , or divide the network and host. Address whichever serves as SUBNET , which host and which as BROADCAST . All that we can know from the SUBNET masknya . Jl Gatot Subroto no alley that I show in the beginning can be understood as using SUBNET MASK DEFAULT , or in other words could be considered that the Network does not have the same subnet (Road without Gang ) . SUBNET MASK DEFAULT for each Class IP Address is as follows :

Conclusion

  • IP Address is the arrangement of numbers that can connect a computer to another computer Function IP Address is
  • 1. IP Address used as an identification tool interface on the host or network
  • 2. IP Address used as the address of a network location

    IP addressing system is divided into two

  • IP version 4 ( IPv4 )
  • IP version 6 ( IPv6 )
  • Public IP is ISP ( Internet Services Provider )
  • Private IP is LAN ( Local Area Network )
  • IP address classes are divided into five classes
  • DNS is a service application on the Internet to translate domain names to IP addresses and vice versa . Function DNS
  • 1. Translates host names ( host names ) into IP number ( IP address) or number ip into host name, therefore that name so easily remembered by internet users .
  • 2. Provide information, on a host , all over the Internet . DNS has advantages such as :
  • Subnetting is a method to reproduce the network ID of a network ID that you have Function Subnetting
  • Subnetting functions include the following :
  • Reduce network traffic , so the data passed in the company will not collide ( collision) or jammed .
  • Optimized network performance .
  • Simplified management .
  • Assisting the development of the network towards the geographical distance away.